葉先秦｜全球化脈絡下東南亞五旬節派教會的跨界與移動：印尼伯特利教會（Gereja Bethel Indonesia）及其在臺發展
Review of International Scholarship on Buddhist Monastic Education, Part I: Issues & Methodology
Lawrence Y.K. Lau
School of Philosophy, Fudan University
This is part one of a review of the current state of international scholarship on Buddhist monastic education, which focuses on an account of issues and methodology. Since the 1990’s, studies from both Chinese and international scholars on the subject of Buddhist monastic education have continued to increase. In this article, the author, basing the discussion on the substantial framing principles of issues and methodology, conducts a review of the existing scholarly literature from the postwar period, especially that of the past forty years, to address the state of research on Buddhist monastic education in the Buddhist traditions of India, Tibet, Bali, and other East Asian countries. The article elaborates five points. First, it delineates the academic subject of Buddhist monastic education, its conceptions, problems, and definitions. In the second through the fourth sections, it adopts a perspective oriented towards questions that cut across traditions and, in addressing these three levels, discusses common issues in Buddhist monastic education. Second, it examines the internal organization of monastic education systems. Third, it explores the relationship between monastic education in Buddhist society and state power and society from two perspectives, the sociology (or anthropology) of education and politico-religious relations. Fourth, it details the transformations that monastic education systems in traditional Buddhist societies underwent after the impacts of modern civilization brought by the process colonial expansion in modern times; this involves exploring questions of the multi-generational response to tensions that have arisen out of monastic education under colonial regimes and anti-colonial Buddhist nationalism, as well as the secularization of government and the counteroffensive of Buddhist fundamentalism. Fifth, in the concluding section, it contrasts the differences between Chinese and international scholarship on Buddhist monastic education regarding their scope, positions, focal points, themes, awareness of issues, methodologies, precedents, and any existent peculiarities in an attempt to indicate the places where Chinese language scholarship can improve our understanding of the subject.
Keywords: Buddhist monastic education, Buddhist scholasticism, anthropology of education, contemporary Buddhist relationships with government
The Constructing Processes of Hung Kings Beliefs:
A Religion that Penetrates Vietnam’s National Consciousness
Thị Hà An Nguyễn
Lecturer, Hochiminh City University of Pedagogy
PhD Student, National Chengchi University
Vietnam, since its founding as in independent state in the tenth century, has developed through a long period of national consciousness building. Over the course of more than a thousand years, there have been remarkable displays in a variety of aspects, such as culture, literature, thought, history and beliefs, but especially in the formation of the mythology centered on the Hung Kings, founding ancestors of Vietnam, a mythological system which has been sustained far long longer than even Japan and Korea's national myths. In the fourteenth century, Vietnamese constructed legend of their ethnic ancestors, which formally became history in the fifteenth century, inscribed in the The Complete Annals of Đại Việt, a work that established a Vietnamese system of historiography. From this time, when myth, history, and religion came to mutually influence one another, until the 20th century, a whole system of beliefs about the Hung Kings was formed, something that was even inherited and carried forward by the atheist Community Party of the Vietnamese government. This paper discusses beliefs of the Hung Kings from the perspective of a Vietnamese nationalistic religion, pointing out how the Hung Kings have moved from a figure of mythology to one of history, thereby constituting a constructive process of a religion that now penetrates Vietnam’s national consciousness.
Keywords: Hung Kings, Lac Long Quan, Kinh Duong Vuong, Vietnamese
popular religion, national consciousness
全球化伴隨而來的跨國界移動現象不僅造成身體、資本、貨物的移動，移民在流動過程中帶入的宗教也是值得關注的議題。臺灣自1980年代後期開始經歷一波東南亞四國移工、新住民以及晚近留學生的移入，其宗教信仰也隨著跨國移動而落戶本地，本文以印尼最大的五旬節教派─印尼伯特利教會（Gereja Bethel Indonesia）為個案，並以該會中壢分堂為觀察對象，探討其跨國移動的過程以及本身與全球五旬節／靈恩後設文化相關的教義、儀式、實踐等層面的變與不變。而這些變與不變繫於與母國基督教的社會處境，是全球在地化的體現，本文尤其論及，印尼母國的「潘查希拉」和「存異求同」的國家格言與社會共識以及後蘇哈托時代伊斯蘭的保守轉向，均對臺灣GBI展現的儀式、實踐、改宗事務有著解領域化的牽動和影響。
The Border-Crossing and Migration of a Southeast Asian Pentecostal Church in the Context of Globalization: The Indonesian Bethel Church (Gereja Bethel Indonesia) and its Development in Taiwan
Postdoctoral Fellow, Graduate School of Religion, Chung Yuan Christian University
Globalization, which surges up migration flow and border-crossing, has brought about the circulation of bodies, capitals and goods. At the meantime, religions of migrants could be a significant issue that is worth of study. Since late 1980s, a great wave of immigrants from Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam came to Taiwan for a variety of reasons, some have been here as migrant workers and foreign spouses, and some have come for the reason to study since these past few years. With their immigration, religions once practiced in countries mentioned above were also planted in the local context. Among them, Indonesia has a great population of Muslims, is often than not represented as an Islamic state accordingly, and Indonesian Christians are apparently neglected by the Taiwanese. This essay aims to explore how the largest Pentecostal denomination—Indonesian Bethel Church (Gereja Bethel Indonesia) migrated to Taiwan and its doctrines, rituals and practices that are connected with and derived from Global Pentecostal/Charismatic metaculture by the case study of its Chungli branch. This essay will explore that what is changing and what is unchanged for GBI Taiwan has been connected or aligned with the social context of Christianity in Indonesia, it could be seen as embodiment of Glocalization. Furthermore, this essay refers to “Pancasila” and “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika”(unity in diversity) as national identity and social consensus, and the “conservative turn” of Indonesian Islam at Post-Suharto era which has influenced what GBI Taiwan has reflected in rituals, practices, and conversion, which shows a certain type of deterritorialization.
Keywords: Pentecostalism, Indonesian Christianity, migration, border-crossing, globalization
Research on Local Daoism: A Focus on the Traditions of the Double Gate of Daoist Rites and Exorcist Methods (Daofa ermen 道法二門) in Southern Fujian and Taiwan
National Chengchi University, Center for the Study of Chinese Religions
This paper, through a focus on the local Daoist traditions of Daofa ermen from Southern Fujian and Taiwan, investigates several basic questions concerning historical and contemporary local Daoism: What are the historical origins and the present day conditions of local Daoism? What are the connections between contemporary local Daoist rituals and historical Daoist rituals? How have local Daoist traditions and other religious traditions interacted with or contested one another? Under government standardization or in the interplay with local religious diversity, how were local Daoist traditions shaped? Finally, through comparative research on the different perspectives of historical and contemporary local Daoism, I attempt to help us reflect on what is meant by the term ‘Daoism.’The main findings are as follows: 1) The Daofa ermen tradition of southern Fujian, which specializes in offering rituals (jiao 醮), has evolved into a 'new' Daofa ermen tradition, a composite ritual tradition that conducts both jiao and exorcist rituals in northern Taiwan. The ‘methods’ of jiao rituals indicates the new methods of the Song Dynasty, which specify the Upper Thearch of the Dark Heavens (Xuantian shangdi 玄天上帝) as master of methods and internal refinement to transform the spirit (neilian bianshen 內練變神) and the summoning and dispatch of divine generals as distinguishing features. Exploring the historical changes of the Daofa ermen tradition helps us to rethink the potential developmental trends in the rise of ritual traditions in Daoist history. 2) By comparing the longitudinal relationship between the southern Fujian and Taiwanese traditions, we discover that local Daoism’s capacity to preserve liturgies and ritual methods through transcribed manuscripts and both oral and esoteric transmission methods is no less than that of the ‘mainstream’ traditions found within the imperiallysponsored Daoist Canon. Such a comparison of contemporary and historical liturgical documents also helps us to more precisely understand the historical development of Daoist ritual. 3) Through a cross-sectional comparison of the regions and their Daoist branches, we can discover the characteristics of the Numinous Treasure (Lingbao 靈寶) and Orthodox Unity (Zhengyi 正一) schools that are preserved in the two great Daoist traditions of southern and northern Taiwan, as well as the place of the fasting rituals (zhai 齋) and jiao rituals in the respective traditions. 4) That local society needs those rituals offered by Daoism (not its doctrines) and that local religious ritual converges in the renowned phenomenon of the jiao reflects the idea that ritual serves as the true impact of the core of the embodied Dao. This also helps us to understand that local Daoism and Daoist ritual are the authentic, living forms of ‘Daoism.’
Keywords: local Daoism, Double Gate of Daoist Rites and Exorcist Methods (Daofa ermen 道法二門), Daoist ritual, Offering ritual (Jiao 醮), Rites of Consecrating Water and Barring the Altar (chishui jintan敕水禁壇)
2014年，《時代》雜誌宣稱「正念革命」來臨；《新共和》雜誌也稱2014為「正念之年」，反映物質生活瀰漫的當今社會，潛在著對精神領域的渴求。探索此「正念」的根源即是佛教的禪修，尤其南傳上座部佛教的修學體系，更被外界廣為熟知與運用。提及禪修普遍化的過程，緬甸高僧勒迪長老（Ledi Sayadaw, 1846-1923）功不可沒。1885年勒迪長老親眼目睹緬甸國王被英軍俘虜的場景，覺悟到佛教的危機，因而推動一系列護法衛教的運動，呼籲維護佛教，人人有責，其維護之道乃透過自己對佛法的認知與體證來護衛，超越了早期純供養者的角色。由是引生了居士團體的研讀佛典與禪修之風，而勒迪長老的僧俗學生不僅延續此風，並將之弘揚於緬甸國內外。至今，正念禪修已被醫學界、教育界，甚至商業界廣泛重視以造福社會。做為當代禪修之風的發起人，勒迪長老其人其事，受教於誰及長老所提倡的修學方法是值得關注的議題。其次，內觀禪法大師葛印卡（S. N. Goenka, 1924-2013）將其禪法師承追溯為勒迪長老，那麼，當今葛印卡內觀禪法與勒迪禪法是否還是一致？勒迪長老教導的內觀與馬哈希內觀有何異同？又，強調止觀雙修的帕奧禪法與勒迪禪法的異同何在？本文將透過勒迪長老之緬文著述及後人所整理的傳記文本，了解勒迪長老的一生並簡要探索上述議題。
A Study of Ledi Sayadaw, Promoter of Contemporary Popular Buddhist Meditation, and his Meditation Thought
PhD student, History Department, National Cheng Kung University
In 2014, Time magazine proclaimed the arrival of mindfulness revolution;
New Republic also named 2014 as “the year of mindfulness”, reflecting
a hidden, earnest demand for a spiritual domain in today’s society where materialism is pervasive. Probing this issue, we see that the root of this “mindfulness” is Buddhist meditation, especially the study system of Theravada (Southern) Buddhism, which is widely known and utilized by the outside world. When referring to the process of Buddhist mediation becoming widespread, the contributions of Burmese Buddhist High Monk Ledi Sayadaw (1846-1923) cannot go unrecognized. In 1885, Ledi Sayadaw witnessed the scene of Burmese kings captured by British troops, awakening him to the crisis that Buddhism faced. He consequently promoted a series of movements to protect the Dharma and defend the teachings, calling for the safeguarding of Buddhist traditions. In this, everyone was responsible, and the path of defense lay in personal learning and emdodiment of Buddhist Dharma; this went beyond the role of those who simply made material offerings in times before. A wave of lay Buddhist scripture study and meditation groups was generated through this. Monks and lay disciples following Ledi Sayadaw not only continue this trend but also promote it in Myanmar and abroad. To date, mindfulness meditation has been already become widely valued by the medical, educational, and even business fields as a means to benefit society. Ledi Sayadaw, the initiator of the trend in contemporary meditation movements, his teachers, the recipients of his teachings, and the study methods that he encourages are all subjects worthy of interest. Since Vipassanā teacher S. N. Goenka (1924-2013) traced his lineage to Ledi Sayadaw, then are their meditation methods the same? What are the similarities and differences in Vipassanā practice between Ledi and Mahasi’s methods? What are the differences between Ledi’s method and Pa-Auk’s, which emphasizes both Samatha and Vipassanā? Through the writings of Ledi Sayadaw and the biographies compiled by posterity, this article attempts to better understand Ledi Sayadaw’s life and briefly explore the questions raised above.
Keywords: Ledi Sayadaw, Samatha, Vipassanā, Vipassanā meditation, meditation
(一) 研究論文（Research Article）
(二) 研究紀要（Research Note）
(三) 書評（Book Review）